Elders & Dementia



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Dementia Care - Types of Dementia

Types of Dementia

  1. Alzheimer’s Dementia
  2. Vascular Dementia
  3. Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  4. Fronto-Temporal Dementia
  5. Rare Causes

Alzheimer’s Dementia

Alzheimer’s Dementia is the most common form of Dementia. Around 70% of patients are having this type of Dementia. It increases with age. There is loss of Brain cells due to formation of Plaques & Neuro fibrilary tangles which lead to shrinkage of Brain. The Gray matter of our brain is responsible for thoughts, Memory, higher functions like calculation, Planning & organization etc. Due to loss of neurons in these areas lead to deterioration of these functions.

Vascular Dementia

This is the second most common form of Dementia. It’s estimated that around 15-20% of all dementias are due to Vascular Dementia. It’s due to disturbances of the blood supply to the brain, i.e. Stoke. It may be hemorrhagic or occlusion of blood vessels. Because of it Brain cell die & may cause Dementia Symptoms. Atherosclerosis is the main reason for these types of Dementias. Type I diabetes, Smoking & small vessel disease are particularly are more vulnerable.

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Lewy bodies are small, circular lumps of proteins that develop inside the brain cells which causes disturbances in neurotransmitters, acetylcholine & Dopamaine. There are also symptoms of Parkinsonism in this Dementia such as shaking, tremors, slowness & rigidity

Fronto-Temporal Dementia

Fornto Temporal dementia is caused by damage & shrinking of two areas, Frontal & Temporal Lobes of Brain. These are also called as Early onset Dementias as they start at early age i.e. before 65 yrs of age. Usually these types of Dementias are rapidly progressive & may cause death within few yrs of diagnosis. Usually these are genetically transmitted & found in families.

Rare causes of Dementia

  • Huntington’s disease
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
  • Cortico-Basal Degeneration
  • Metal Poisoning e.g. Lead
  • Alcohol Dependance
  • Medications like steroids
  • Vitamin Deficiency
  • Head Injury
  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Wilson’s disease